Posts Tagged ‘MJ’

Federal government says marijuana has no accepted medical use

LA-Marijuana has been approved by California, many other states and the nation’s capital to treat a range of illnesses, but in a decision announced Friday the federal government ruled that it has no accepted medical use and should remain classified as a dangerous drug like heroin.

The decision comes almost nine years after medical marijuana supporters asked the government to reclassify cannabis to take into account a growing body of worldwide research that shows its effectiveness in treating certain diseases, such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis.

Advocates for the medical use of the drug criticized the ruling but were elated that the Obama administration had finally acted, which allows them to appeal to the federal courts, where they believe they can get a fairer hearing. The decision to deny the request was made by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and comes less than two months after advocates asked the U.S. Court of Appeals to force the administration to respond to their petition.

“We have foiled the government’s strategy of delay, and we can now go head-to-head on the merits, that marijuana really does have therapeutic value,” said Joe Elford, the chief counsel for Americans for Safe Access and the lead counsel on the recently filed lawsuit. Elford said he was not surprised by the decision, which comes just after the Obama administration announced it would not tolerate large-scale commercial marijuana cultivation. “It is clearly motivated by a political decision that is anti-marijuana,” he said. He noted that studies demonstrate pot has beneficial effects, including appetite stimulation for people undergoing chemotherapy. “One of the things people say about marijuana is that it gives you the munchies and the truth is that it does, and for some people that’s a very positive thing.”

DEA Administrator Michele M. Leonhart sent a letter dated June 21 to the organizations that filed a petition for the change. The letter and the documentation that she used to back up her decision were published Friday in the Federal Register. Leonhart said she rejected the request because marijuana “has a high potential for abuse,” “has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States” and “lacks accepted safety for use under medical supervision.”

This is the third time that petitions to reclassify marijuana have been spurned. The first was filed in 1972 and denied 17 years later. The second was filed in 1995 and denied in 2001. Both decisions were appealed, but the courts sided with the federal government.

Free Marc update!!

 

 

 

 

 

http://livestre.am/Rvkp

Cannabis Culture news!

 

Canadian EV to be Pimped Out with Hemp Bio Composite Interior

HEMP-While hemp can be used for food, textiles, paper, fabric, and fuel oil, the misunderstood crop breeds fear amongst politicians in the United States and has led to the crop being illegal to grow without a DEA permit, which is pretty hard to get. But growing hemp is legal in Canada. Canadian company Motive Industries has taken advantage of this, and have been working on an electric car made of hemp plastic. Touted as Canada’s first bio composite electric car, the Motive Kestrel’s top speed is 135 km/h, with a range of 160 km. The ultralight car is a 3 door 4 passenger electric vehicle, and packs 16 kWh of lithium battery juice to keep the car going 160 kilometers per charge.

Now Motive has announced that bio composite materials derived from hemp and flax fibre will also be used in the car’s interior. They will be used to create the headliner, door panels, door trim, floor tub and center tunnel, instrument panel and the center console panel. The prototype should be coming out sometime this year, with a production goal of 2012.

The advantages of using bio composites over traditional materials include reducing dependence on fossil fuels, reducing waste, cost, and being able to produce the materials right in Canada. The materials are made from hemp mats produced by Alberta Innovates – Technology Futures (AITF), from hemp stock grown in Vegreville, Alberta. AITF is technically owned by the Government of Alberta. Considering the US government has a major fear of hemp, this could give Canada a leg up in the automotive industry.

Pursuit of Misdemeanor Marijuana Possession Costs Vermont Over $700K Annually

REP. LORBER CALLS FOR DECRIMINALIZATION….

(BURLINGHAM, Vt.) – New data unveiled today shows that Vermont state government spends over $700,000 annually to pursue Vermonters for possession of small amounts of marijuana.

Based on the new findings, Rep. Jason Lorber (D-Burlington) today announced plans to introduce a bill that would decriminalize the possession of less than one ounce of marijuana.

“We should stop wasting $700,000 a year on a failed policy,” said Rep. Lorber. “It’s time for a smarter approach. That means decriminalization for an ounce or less of marijuana.”

“In a time of great fiscal strain, it is critical that we focus law enforcement resources on offenses that pose the greatest threats to public safety,” said Windsor County State’s Attorney, Robert Sand. “Possession of small amounts of marijuana does not fall into this category. Converting misdemeanor marijuana crimes into civil violations is an appropriate and laudatory legislative endeavor.”

Today’s announcement follows the release of a memo written for Rep. Lorber by the non-partisan Vermont Legislative Joint Fiscal Office (JFO). The report detailed costs totaling $716,021, broken into categories of Police ($45,257), State’s Attorneys ($10,429), Defender General ($19,768), Court Diversion ($169,500), Judiciary ($105,344), and Corrections ($365,725). It involves 801 arrests, 76 Vermonters serving time behind bars, and 270 on field supervision. JFO estimates that the true costs could be 20% more or less than the $716,021 figure. The study focused on cases in which possession of up to 2 ounces of marijuana was a stand-alone charge.

What the Hell is Up With This Marijuana Leaf, Anyway?

http://www.howtogrowbud.com/2011/02/what-the-hell-is-up-with-this-marijuana-leaf-anyway/#axzz1IaKiv3Fk

By: Steve Elliott

Ever since I started writing about marijuana, every time I look for related images online I keep running across a pot leaf photo that just doesn’t make sense.

Unfortunately, it seems to be one of the most popular “marijuana” photos on the web, and, in fact, is the top result for a Google image search on the term “marijuana.” Annoyingly, it’s also the top image result for “marijuana leaf.”
But there’s something just wrong looking about that leaf, and it doesn’t take long to figure out why.
This photo — which Discovery Health says it sourced from Marijuana.com — seems to show what looks like a female cannabis flower coming out the base of a marijuana leaf, where the leaf blades meet the leaf stem.
Now, I know Marijuana.com isn’t known as the best place for accurate weed info. In fact, it’s covered with those maddening “fake marijuana” ads for “legal buds.” But are they really the source of this photo? I’ve not been able to find it on the site.

I’m not saying the photo is absolutely impossible, but I believe it’s just inaccurate — at least, I’ve never seen that happen. Have you? If so, do you have a photo?
Cannabis flowers, as all know, occur either at the very tips of stems, or right against the main stalk of the plant. This is true for both males and females. And while leaves often grow out of buds, buds don’t grow out of leaves — buds grow only out of stalks or stems.
This photo is all the more irritating because of its ubiquity. Seemingly no matter where one looks on the web, there it is, again and again, displaying its botanical unlikelihood as a supposedly representative picture of marijuana in article after article.
It seems to be a real favorite whenever a “mainstream” site is doing a “marijuana article” and looking for a royalty-free photo.
If the bud were down at the base of the leaf stem, rather than at the base of the leaf blades where they meet the stem, I would be more inclined to accept it as genuine. But since I’ve never seen a bud grow at this particular spot on a leaf, I’m skeptical.
There’s only the one photo, seemingly everywhere, showing this phenomenon. I’ve never been able to uncover another one like it.
Who took — or faked — this photo? Why does it depict a bud growing out the base of the topside of a leaf? And why is this inaccurate photo — or, at least, very atypical photo — the most popular marijuana photo on the Web?
marijuana-leaf sized.jpg
Photo: Retro Tee Shirts
An actual marijuana leaf doesn’t have flowers at the base of the leaf blades, where they meet the stem.
male_female_cannabis.jpeg
Photo: Weed Farmer
Cannabis flowers typically grow out of stalks and stems, not out of leaves.

 

NOT QUITE THC YET!

Dronabinol

Synthesized THC is known as dronabinol. It is available as a prescription drug (under Marinol[71]) in several countries including the United States and Germany. In the United States, Marinol is a Schedule III drug, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence. Efforts to get cannabis rescheduled as analogous to Marinol have not succeeded thus far, though a 2002 petition has been accepted by the DEA. As a result of the rescheduling of Marinol from Schedule II to Schedule III, refills are now permitted for this substance. Marinol has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy, which has raised much controversy as to why natural THC is still a schedule I drug.[72]

An analog of dronabinol, nabilone, is available commercially in Canada under the trade name Cesamet, manufactured by Valeant. Cesamet has also received FDA approval and began marketing in the U.S. in 2006; it is a Schedule II drug.

In April 2005, Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex, a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol. It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals, being the first cannabis-based prescription drug in the world (in modern times). In addition, Sativex received European regulatory approval in 2010.

THC

The pharmacological actions of THC result from its binding to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, located mainly in the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptor, mainly present in cells of the immune system. It acts as a partial agonist on both receptors, i.e., it activates them but not to their full extent. The psychoactive effects of THC are mediated by its activation of the CB1 receptor, which is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the brain.

The presence of these specialized receptors in the brain implied to researchers that endogenous cannabinoids are manufactured by the body, so the search began for a substance normally manufactured in the brain that binds to these receptors, the so-called natural ligand or agonist, leading to the eventual discovery of anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glyceride (2-AG), and other related compounds known as endocannabinoids. This is similar to the story of the discovery of endogenous opiates (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphin), after the realization that morphine and other opiates bind to specific receptors in the brain. In addition, it has been shown that cannabinoids, through an unknown mechanism, activate endogenous opioid pathways involving the μ1 opioid receptor, precipitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of the drug can be suppressed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) as well as opioid receptor antagonists (opioid blockers) naloxone and naloxonazine.[12]

The mechanism of endocannabinoid synaptic transmission is thought to occur as follows: First, transmission of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate causes an influx of calcium ions into the post-synaptic neuron. Through a mechanism not yet fully understood, the presence of post-synaptic calcium induces the production of endocannabinoids in the post-synaptic neuron. These endocannabinoids (such as anandamide), then, are released into the synaptic cleft, where binding occurs at cannabinoid receptors present on pre-synaptic neurons, where they modulate neurotransmission. Thus, this form of neurotransmission is termed retrograde transmission, as the signal is carried in the opposite direction of orthodox propagation, which previously was thought to be exclusively one way.

THC has mild to moderate analgesic effects, and cannabis can be used to treat pain. The mechanism for analgesic effects caused directly by THC or other cannabinoid agonists is not fully understood. Other effects include relaxation; euphoria; altered space-time perception; alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses; loss of anxiety;[13] anxiety in neurotic individuals or individuals unfamilar with effects;[13] disorientation;[13] fatigue; and appetite stimulation (colloquially known as “the munchies”). The mechanism for appetite stimulation in subjects is believed to result from activity in the gastro-hypothalamic axis.[citation needed] CB1 activity in the hunger centers in the hypothalamus increases the palatability of food when levels of a hunger hormone ghrelin increase prior to consuming a meal. After chyme is passed into the duodenum, signaling hormones such as cholecystokinin and leptin are released, causing reduction in gastric emptying and transmission of satiety signals to the hypothalamus. Cannabinoid activity is reduced through the satiety signals induced by leptin release. It also has anti-emetic properties, and also may reduce aggression in certain subjects.

THC has an active metabolite, 11-Hydroxy-THC, which may also play a role in the analgesic and recreational effects of cannabis.

The α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine can block self-administration of THC in rats comparable to the effects of varenicline on nicotine administration.[14][15]

Two studies indicate that THC also has an anticholinesterase action [16][17] which may implicate it as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s and Myasthenia Gravis.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 128 other followers

%d bloggers like this: