Posts Tagged ‘weed’

Know Your Trichomes!

Pot Grows, Yet California Judge Rules It Isn’t A Crop

And the stupidity continues with stupid decisions like this going on. Who knew a plant wasn’t a plant apparently?
It grows in the ground, requires sunshine and water to blossom and earns California growers an estimated $17 billion a year. But don’t call marijuana an agricultural crop in Tulare County.
The Fresno Bee (http://bit.ly/pwDIGg) reports that a judge ruled this week against a medical marijuana-growing collective that wanted to operate on land zoned for agriculture.
Tulare County Counsel Kathleen Bales-Lange says it’s the first time that courts have addressed whether marijuana can be classified as an agricultural crop. California voters legalized pot for medicinal purposes in 1996.
The case began when the county Board of Supervisors sued the Foothill Growers Association, which operated in an agriculture-zoned building.
In a ruling finalized Tuesday, Judge Paul Vortmann said the act of growing a controlled substance is not an agricultural use of property.
(Source) http://www.mercurynews.com

Super Criss Cross Joint (Picture)

Check out this double criss cross joint. Are you kidding me?
Send us your videos if you attempt to make this and/or smoke it!!!

So dope!!!

Optimize Your Growing Environment

Optimize Your Growing Environment

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Story & photos by Erik Biksa

Atmosphere Control

The plants shown being harvested in this garden (courtesy of the Urban Grower) were cultivated in a controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) system that allowed the grower to exercise perfect control over every environmental parameter in the growroom. Daytime and nighttime temperatures are controlled independently and accurately via air-conditioning; excess humidity is removed from the air with industrial dehumidifiers; carbon-dioxide levels are supplemented with a gas-fired CO2 generator; and the air is kept clean and pure with large, activated-charcoal air scrubbers and fans. All of these appliances are connected to precision sensors and monitors that allow the grower to create (and modify) the perfect climate for producing a heavy and sticky harvest of high-quality cannabis.

The level of control in this type of growroom is excellent – but, much like a computer, it’s only as good as what you tell it to do. Most cannabis growers recognize that different strains have different preferences when it comes to the growing environment and nutrients. Experienced farmers recognize that at various times throughout the growth cycle, different strains can be manipulated in different ways to enhance the characteristics and traits desired.

Consider that in natural (i.e., outdoor) settings, cannabis plants receive differing intensities, qualities and durations of light. In addition, nutrient availability changes throughout the growing season. When growing indoors, however, growers have the ability to tightly control these and other growing parameters.

The Vegetative Stage

After the pre-veg phase, in which newly rooted clones or young seedlings are conditioned for more intensive growing conditions, the crop is ready to enter the vegetative-growth stage. Here, the goal is to develop a large root system and enough potential budding sites on each plant to fill the space allotted once the buds start flowering, while avoiding overfilling the space due to excessive plant heights and branching.

It takes research (and occasionally some trial and error) to accurately determine the best planting densities and times for vegetative growth to produce optimal results in any particular strain. It’s important to note that indica-dominant strains may grow very little once flowering is initiated, while sativa-dominant strains may triple or even quadruple in size before finishing. Thus, the length of time spent in the vegetative-growth stage needs to be adjusted accordingly for each plant.

In this particular garden, the plants experienced a five-week vegetative-growth period before the flowering stage was induced. During this time, each of these NYC Sour Diesel plants received plenty of space for both branch and root development. Just to highlight how important a large, healthy root system is for big yields of high-quality buds later on, it should be noted that the plants were grown in approximately 72 liters of peat-based soilless mix apiece.

The soilless mix is maintained with high levels of microbial life and bioactivity to help further stimulate the root systems and fill the large volume of growing medium provided to each plant. Beneficial inoculants are added with the nutrients to populate the growth medium and the root zones with fungi and bacteria such as Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and mycorrhizae. The root systems are kept elevated off the cold floors, and the containers are placed on wheels so that each of the trashcans filled with soilless mix can be maneuvered easily through the growroom to help maximize light coverage for each plant.

Warm It Up

Slightly warmer temperatures help to increase the metabolic rate of activity in both the soil and plants. During vegetative growth, supplementing CO2 levels to approximately 1,000 ppm (parts per million) and maintaining even temperatures of 85ºF during the daytime and 80ºF at night proves to be optimal. The populations of beneficial microbes supplied via nutrient additives help to keep each plant’s root system healthy while functioning at the higher metabolic rates stimulated by the warmer vegetative-stage temperatures. By keeping the DIF (i.e., the temperature differential between day and night or light and dark) closer at this stage, the plants tend to produce tighter branching patterns, building an efficient framework for supporting large yields of dense, sticky buds.

Humidity

In the early-veg stage, some growers prefer to keep their humidity levels slightly higher (for example, 65%) to give the plants an opportunity to set down some roots after transplanting. If the air is too dry, tender young plants will have to work hard to keep up with the water loss through their leaves, and this creates stresses that can reduce cropping potential and invite other problems. This is a great time to introduce predator insects like Phytoseiulus persimilis (which eat spider mites), because they tend to do better at higher humidity levels. Also, because the plants are smaller at this point, fewer predator insects can provide more effective coverage faster. The humidity levels are then gradually lowered as the veg stage progresses.

Transition

The first one to two weeks of flowering are often referred to as the “transitional growth” phase. During this time, nitrogen levels are decreased slightly while the levels of phosphorous and potassium are increased. Temperatures should be reduced to 80°F when the lights are on and 75°F when they’re off. Notice that the DIF is still narrow here; this helps to create tighter internodes at the onset of flowering, reducing the spaces between individual budding sites and producing more buds for harvest. CO2 levels are typically maintained at 1,000 to 1,200 ppm during this time, with a strain-dependent relative humidity of 40% to 55%.

Flowering Time

At peak flowering (i.e., the middle of the flowering cycle), nutrient strengths and concentrations are at their highest, often averaging 1,500 ppm (approximately 2.0 EC) to stimulate and supply the intense structural development of the buds that occurs now. When using soil or soilless mixes, growers often follow a “feed, feed, water” regimen to help reduce the accumulation of nutrient residues that may occur in their medium. Growers who like to feed heavy will do a light flush of the containers or beds once every one to two weeks during flowering. A flush mix of humic acids and digestive enzymes proves to be ideal for this purpose, since it helps to reduce excess nutrients in the growth medium that can create nutrient imbalances or lockouts.

Humidity and temperature levels are maintained at their set points, with no changes until the late budding/ripening phase of the reproductive cycle. CO2 levels should be further elevated at peak flowering, and carbohydrates help to supply both the plants and beneficial soil life with an abundant source of energy when growth and development are occurring at a higher rate due to the growing environment provided.

For the ripening period – which typically consists of the last two to four weeks before harvest – medicinal growers shift gears with their environment and crop feedings to promote maximum bud swell and resin production as well as a smooth, clean taste in the harvested buds. Environmental manipulation can even bring out the best colorations in certain types of genetics (for example, beautiful purples and reds).

The Big Flush

For the final weeks before harvest, no base nutrients are applied. This helps to flush the plants and growing medium of any excess nutrients that may contribute to poor-tasting, hard-to-burn buds. A variety of rinsing agents can be used to help facilitate this process, although many growers (especially those reusing their medium, whether soil or soilless mix) prefer to flush with humic acids and digestive enzymes. In fact, growers who have doubled up on the rate of digestive enzymes mixed into the reservoir for flushing report marked improvements in both the quality of their crop and the suitability of their growing medium for reuse.

When significantly increasing the DIF between daytime and nighttime temperatures, growers should pay close attention to any rise in humidity levels during the dark cycle. Dehumidifiers help to keep the relative humidity (RH) from rising above 55% when the lights are off, which is necessary because excess humidity encourages bud rot and other plant diseases in the dense, heavy clusters of ripening cannabis.

CO2

It’s important that CO2 levels are lowered to ambient levels during the ripening phase (for example, 450 to 650 ppm). If CO2 levels remain higher at this stage, the buds may get bigger, but they’ll lack the density and intense flavors and colors that growers typically desire. This is because carbon dioxide inhibits the plant’s production of ethylene, a naturally occurring hormone that assists in the ripening process.

Light intensity can also be reduced at this time, since growers are more concerned with dissipating their plants’ chlorophyll content rather than building it up to achieve better-quality medicine.

Harvesting

Only after the grower is sure that the plants and growing medium have been adequately flushed of excess nutrients does the decision of when to harvest come into play. Well-flushed plants will usually show yellowing in the older fan leaves, signifying that excess nutrients have been transferred and used up by the ripening colas. With a magnifying glass or handheld microscope, the grower can inspect the swelling resin glands for signs of peak maturity.

A higher percentage of clear-looking glands indicates that the resins have not yet reached their full potency. This is desirable for some patients, since slightly less mature resin glands often have a more “heady” effect (as opposed to either a sedative effect or body stone) because the ratios of THC to CBD (cannabidiol) and CBN (cannabinol) are wider.

When the resin glands have gone from clear to milky white and opaque, the resin is at peak maturity. For most patients, this proves to be the ideal time to harvest, since there’s now a good balance between the THC and CBD/CBN levels, providing a more equal head-to-body effect. On the other hand, those patients looking for a body stone may want to wait until some of the resin glands have turned from milky white to amber: At this point, some of the THC is beginning to degrade and convert back into precursors like CBD and CBN. Growers who wait longer during the ripening phase may have slightly heavier harvests, but they are also much more likely to get a sleepier effect from their medicine.

Finally, some growers have noticed a higher rate of resin production when the plants are kept in total darkness for 24 to 48 hours prior to harvest. Some studies suggest that resin production in the cannabis plant peaks just before the sun comes up (or the lights are turned on), so the extra darkness may promote a final burst of resin secretion.

There are many different strains of cannabis that appear highly suited for treating various ailments, with each strain possessing its own unique resin profile. Growers can use carefully controlled environments and nutrient programs to bring out the best in a chosen strain and, in some instances, even enhance what it has to offer – resulting in cannabis that is potentially more effective for each patient’s unique needs.

 

Chronic Comics: He knows

7 cannabis studies that will change everything…

​​ Welcome to Room 420, where your instructor is Mr. Ron Marczyk and your subjects are wellness, disease prevention, self actualization, and chillin’.
Worth Repeating
​By Ron Marczyk, R.N.
Since the 1960s, the major milestones our country has achieved are incredible.
We elected an African-American president, women’s issues have made tremendous progress, and gays and lesbians can marry.
But cannabis is still illegal…?  Not for long! 
As the tsunami of hard empirical positive medical cannabis research builds, it meets the inevitable changing younger demographics of our country, and with the need for new cannabis- based jobs and new tax revenue.
The cannabis legalization tipping point is close at hand!
“Cannabis is the people’s medicine” and has overwhelming public support.
Let’s knock this last domino over!
And to that end…
I would like to highlight several 2011 research papers that discuss the most current findings regarding medical cannabis treatment and disease prevention.

The following medical papers focus on:
• Cancer and colon cancer prevention,
• Inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, Crohn’s disease
• Vomiting from chemotherapy
• Osteoporosis
• Traumatic brain injury
• Heart disease /Heart attack
The concept of the endocannabinoid system was outlined a mere 14 years ago, and looks how far we have come!
Today “phytocannabinoid therapeutics” is the newest, fastest growing field in medical research.
As this medical cannabis evidence-based tsunami approaches, its main therapeutic action appears to restoring homeostasis to multiple body systems.
The action by which phytocannabinoids heal is by reestablishing the proper immune set points within CB 1/2 receptors in both brain and body.
Perhaps the root of many human illnesses is an anandamide deficiency, which, when corrected and rebalanced by THC intake, produces homeostasis.
Whatever anandamide does in the body, phytocannabinoids mimic. My prediction is that phytocannabinoids will ultimately be found to be an vital to human health.
Phytocannabinoids mimic the same actions of Anandamide in the brain and body, which maintain homeostasis, maintaining wellness and disease prevention!    

Cannabinoid Uses.jpg
Graphic: TRENDS In Pharmacological Sciences
Pharmacological actions of non-psychotropic cannabinoids (with the indication of the proposed mechanisms of action). Abbreviations: D 9 -THC, D 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol; D 8 -THC, D 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol; CBN, cannabinol; CBD, cannabidiol; D 9 -THCV, D 9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin; CBC, cannabichromene; CBG, cannabigerol; D 9 -THCA, D 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid; CBDA, cannabidiolic acid; TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1; PPARg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g; ROS, reactive oxygen species; 5-HT1A, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 1A; FAAH, fatty acid amide hydrolase. (+), direct or indirect activation; “, increase; #, decrease.
It’s All About THC
THC is unique, in that it is only found in one plant on earth.
Thumbnail image for power-flower.jpeg
Photo: Rhinoseeds
Power Flower strain
​ The female cannabis plant is a THC-resin factory. THC, which makes up the plant’s resin, has the important job of collecting pollen from the male plant for fertilization. No THC-laced resin, no seed production.  Additionally, this resin tastes very bad to herbivores, which leave it alone, and it also offers superior UV protection to the plant at high altitudes.
A cannabis sativa flower coated with trichomes, which contain more THC than any other part of the plant
The cannabis plant has only two functions: to make THC and seeds.
THC is the most abundant “phytocannabinoid” within the cannabis plant.
All other THC-like substances in the plant are THC intermediate metabolites being assembled by the plant on their way to becoming THC.
Once the plant is cut down and dies, the THC degrades into cannabindiol.  Cannabinol (CBN) is the primary product of THC degradation, and there is usually little of it in a fresh plant. CBN content increases as THC degrades in storage, and with exposure to light and air, and it is only mildly psychoactive.
Why would just this one plant, and the phytocannabinoids it produces control not one, but two dedicated molecular receptors for phytocannabinoids, with more predicted to still be discovered?
Did evolution intend for them to be naturally consumed for proper body function? As any other plant-derived antioxidant?
How THC talks to the brain and immune system
marijuana-brain.gif
Graphic: How Stuff Works
​All healing, cancer fighting and aging in your body is controlled by the immune system.
Phytocannabinoids appear to control the activity level of the immune system up or down, so that it doesn’t attack its host or respond too weakly to cellular dysfunction. Whenever you hear the term “anti-inflammatory activity,” think “cannabis immune system control.”
CB1 cannabigenic receptors are the majority of receptor type in the synaptic clef. THC-activated CB1 brain receptors directly link up and control the microglial cells in the brain; the microglia is the specialized white blood cells that make up the brain’s dedicated immune system.
Cannabidiol is degraded THC. It activates CB2 receptors mostly in the body. In both cases, THC controls both immune systems (brain and body), in one form or another. It seems that CB1 brain receptors link up to CB2 body receptors, which in turn control many autoimmune diseases.
The word used to describe this cannabis brain/body link up is Psychoneuroimmunology.
Mind = neurotransmitter = immune system communication system, or in this case
Cannabinergic Psychoneuroimmunology” — cannabinoid-induced immune system healing.
Cannabis consciousness repairs your immune system: never underestimate the power of a bong hit!
#1:   “The Endocannabinoid System and Cancer: Therapeutic Implication” 
264519d82c1dad9caf934a7f49f5b461-196x196.jpeg
Photo: WhyProhibition.ca
​Findings: Delta 9 THC as a treatment for breast, prostate, brain and bone cancer
“This review updates the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and anti-tumor actions (inhibition of cell proliferation and migration, induction of apoptosis, reduction of tumor growth) of the cannabinoids in different types of cancer.”
“The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for cancer, as identified in clinical trials, is also discussed. Identification of safe and effective treatments to manage and improve cancer therapy is critical to improve quality of life and reduce unnecessary suffering in cancer patients.”
“In this regard, cannabis-like, compounds offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast, prostate and bone cancer in patients. Further basic research on anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids as well as clinical trials of cannabinoid therapeutic efficacy in breast, prostate and bone cancer is therefore warranted.”
“The available literature suggests that the endocannabinoid system may be targeted to suppress the evolution and progression of breast, prostate and bone cancer as well as the accompanying pain syndromes. Although this review focuses on these three types of cancer, activation of the endocannabinoid signaling system produces anti-cancer effects in other types of cancer including skin, brain gliomas and lung.”
“Interestingly, cannabis trials in population based studies failed to show any evidence for increased risk of respiratory symptoms/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer (Tashkin, 2005) associated with smoking cannabis.”
“Moreover, synthetic cannabinoids (Delta 9 THC) and the endocannabinoid system play a role in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis, reducing tumor growth and metastases and inducing apoptosis ( self destruction for cancer cells) in all three types of cancers reviewed here.
“These observations raise the possibility that a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system may promote cancer, by fostering physiological conditions that allow cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and grow.”
IMPORTANT: This is a very intriguing observation. What is being implied here is that some people may be suffering from an anandamide deficiency! Just as a diabetic is insulin deficiencient and must supplement their body with insulin, in this case THC is the vital medicine needed to replace low levels of anandamide.
These observations also raise the exciting possibility that enhancing cannabinoid tone (code for THC locking into the CB1 receptor) through cannabinoid based pharmacotherapies may attenuate these harmful processes to produce anti-cancer effects in humans.
Bottom line:  Smoking marijuana prevents cancer body-wide.
#2:  “Update on the Endocannabinoid System as an Anticancer Target” 
icon_closerlook.jpeg
Graphic: Americans for Safe Access
​Findings: antitumor effects, cancer prevention
“Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) could offer an attractive antitumor target. Numerous findings suggest the involvement of this system (constituted mainly by cannabinoid receptors, endogenous compounds and the enzymes for their synthesis and degradation) in cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.”
“This review covers literature from the past decade which highlights the potential of targeting the ECS for cancer treatment. In particular, the levels of endocannabinoids and the expression of their receptors in several types of cancer are discussed, along with the signaling pathways involved in the endocannabinoid antitumor effects.”
“Furthermore, targeting the ECS with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors (This means THC) or inhibitors of endogenous degrading systems such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors may have relevant therapeutic impact on tumor growth. Additional studies into the downstream consequences of endocannabinoid treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.”
#3:  “Cannabinoids and the gut: new developments and emerging concepts”
medical-marijuana_5.jpeg
Photo: Top News
​Findings: THC and inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colitis, colon cancer, vomiting/chemotherapy
“Disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have been treated with herbal and plant-based remedies for centuries. Prominent amongst these therapeutics are preparations derived from the marijuana plant Cannabis.  Cannabis has been used to treat a variety of GI conditions that range from enteric infections and inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to disorders of motility, emesis and abdominal pain.”
“Cannabis has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) conditions that range from enteric infections and inflammatory conditions to disorders of motility, emesis and abdominal pain.”
“The mechanistic basis of these treatments emerged after the discovery of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as the major constituent of Cannabis. Further progress was made when the receptors for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol were identified as part of an endocannabinoid system, that consists of specific cannabinoid receptors.”
Screen Shot 2011-08-07 at 1.08.42 PM.png
Sites of action of cannabinoids in the enteric nervous system. CB2 receptors indicated with the marijuana leaf.
​  “Anatomical, physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the gut, with regional variation and organ-specific actions.” (CB2 receptors are embedded within the lining of the intestines in large numbers.)
“They are involved in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastro protection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation and cell proliferation in the gut.”
“As we have shown, the endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the gut, with regional variation and specific regional or organ-specific actions.”
“CB2 receptors are involved in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastro protection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation and cell proliferation (cancer)”
Screen Shot 2011-08-07 at 1.10.04 PM.png
How THC/cannabidiol activates the CB1/2 receptors to shut down colon cancer by signaling cancer cells to self-destruct
​ “Preclinical models have shown that modifying the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects…. Pharmacological agents that act on these targets have been shown in preclinical models to have therapeutic potential.” [THC is the Pharmacological agent mentioned.]
Colorectal Cancer Prevention Model

Cannabiols via CB1 and possibly CB2 receptor activation, have been shown to exert apoptotic actions in several colorectal cancer cell lines.
See the illustration at left for how THC/cannabidiol activates the CB1/2 receptors to shut down colon cancer by signaling cancer cells to self-destruct.
#4:   “Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system”
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Graphic: CMR Journal
Schematic illustration of the functional roles of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the gastrointestinal tract. The ECS regulates four major functional elements in the gut: motility, secretion, inflammation, and sensation in health and disease. Major components of the ECS that have been defined in each of these functional roles are shown: CB1 and CB2 receptors, anandamide (AEA), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter (EMT). For motility, the CB2 receptors only appear to be active under pathophysiological conditions and are shown italicized.
​ Findings: Stemming from the centuries-old and well known effects of Cannabis on intestinal motility and secretion, research on the role of the endocannabinoid system in gut function and dysfunction has received ever increasing attention since the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids.
In this article, some of the most recent developments in this field are discussed, with particular emphasis on new data, most of which are published in Neurogastroenterology & Motility, on the potential tonic endocannabinoid control of intestinal motility, the function of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors in gastric function, visceral pain, inflammation and sepsis, the emerging role of cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors in the gut, and the pharmacology of endocannabinoid-related molecules and plant cannabinoids not necessarily acting via cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors.
These novel data highlight the multi-faceted aspects of endocannabinoid function in the GI tract, support the feasibility of the future therapeutic exploitation of this signaling system for the treatment of GI disorders, and leave space for some intriguing new hypotheses on the role of endocannabinoids in the gut.
#5: “Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss”
cannabinoid.jpeg
Graphic: Medicinal Cannabis
​Findings: CB2 receptors maintain bone remodeling balance, thus protecting the skeleton against age-related bone loss.
The active component of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, activates the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, thus mimicking the action of endogenous cannabinoids.
CB1 is predominantly neuronal and mediates the cannabinoid psychotropic effects. CB2 is predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues, mainly in pathological conditions. So far the main endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, have been found in bone at ‘brain’ levels.
The CB1 receptor is present mainly in skeletal sympathetic nerve terminals, thus regulating the adrenergic tonic restrain of bone formation. CB2 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, stimulates bone formation, and inhibits bone resorption.
Because low bone mass is the only spontaneous phenotype so far reported in CB2 mutant mice, it appears that the main physiologic involvement of CB2 is associated with maintaining bone remodeling at balance, thus protecting the skeleton against age-related bone loss.
Indeed, in humans, polymorphisms in CNR2, the gene encoding CB2, are strongly associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that a synthetic CB2-specific agonist rescues ovariectomy-induced bone loss.
Taken together, the reports on cannabinoid receptors in mice and humans pave the way for the development of 1) diagnostic measures to identify osteoporosis-susceptible polymorphisms in CNR2, and 2) cannabinoid drugs to combat osteoporosis.
Endocannabinoid cell.jpg
Graphic: Fit Body Bootcamp
​​Findings: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents the leading cause of death in young individuals.
FINDING:  THC activation of the CB1 receptor is the same as the action of anaidemide on CB1 This article discusses how anandamide increases in the brain after injury, so THC may have the potential to become a front line emergency medicine in the future.
“There is a large body of evidence showing that eCB are markedly increased in response to pathogenic traumatic head injury events.”
“This fact, as well as numerous studies on experimental models of brain toxicity, neuroinflammation and trauma supports the notion that the eCB are part of the brain’s compensatory or repair mechanisms.”
These are mediated via CB receptors signalling pathways that are linked to neuronal survival and repair. The levels of 2-AG, the most highly abundant eCB, are significantly elevated after TBI and when administered to TBI mice, 2-AG decreases brain edema, inflammation and infarct volume and improves clinical recovery.( So would THC.)
This review is focused on the role the eCB system plays as a self-neuroprotective mechanism and its potential as a basis for the development of novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of CNS pathologies with special emphasis on TBI.
Bottom line:  For proof see U.S government 2003 patent
#7:  “Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion”
cbd-cannabis-marijuana.jpeg
Graphic: Cannabis N.I.
Not only is CBD cardioprotective — it is also an anti-epileptic, sedative, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antioxidant, neuroprotectant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-emetic, and anti-tumorant.
​ Findings:  Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid, with anti-apoptotic, (the process of programmed cell death) anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has recently been shown to exert a tissue sparing effect during chronic myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R).
However, it is not known whether CBD is cardioprotective in the acute phase of I/R injury and the present studies tested this hypothesis.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either vehicle or CBD (10 or 50 microg kg(-1) i.v.) 10 min before 30 min coronary artery occlusion or CBD (50 microg kg(-1) i.v.) 10 min before reperfusion (2 h). The appearance of ventricular arrhythmias during the ischaemic and immediate post-reperfusion periods were recorded and the hearts excised for infarct size determination and assessment of mast cell degranulation. Arterial blood was withdrawn at the end of the reperfusion period to assess platelet aggregation in response to collagen.
KEY RESULTS: “CBD reduced both the total number of ischaemia-induced arrhythmias and infarct size when administered prior to ischaemia, an effect that was dose-dependent. Infarct size was also reduced when CBD was given prior to reperfusion. CBD (50 microg kg(-1) i.v.) given prior to ischaemia, but not at reperfusion, attenuated collagen-induced platelet aggregation compared with control, but had no effect on ischaemia-induced mast cell degranulation.”
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: “This study demonstrates that CBD is cardioprotective in the acute phase of I/R by both reducing ventricular arrhythmias and attenuating infarct size. The anti-arrhythmic effect, but not the tissue sparing effect, may be mediated through an inhibitory effect on platelet activation.”
Remember to exercise your ganja rights! Every day is a Ganja day!

Cannabis for the Cure?

Public-health researchers say the federal government is slowing the search for cures to breast, colon, prostate and brain cancers, as well as Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s, and HIV, because the research involves cannabis.

That’s the takeaway from the 21st annual symposium of the International Cannabinoid Research Society, which was held earlier this month in Illinois. Researchers stacked the program with talks not only about cannabis’s palliative properties but also its curative efficacy. The event, sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, was held the same week the Drug Enforcement Administration reiterated its stance that marijuana has no accepted medical use.

“It was really interesting,” said Amanda Reiman, who holds a doctorate from the UC Berkeley School of Social Welfare and presented at the symposium. “At the same time [that] the DEA was publicly declaring that cannabis has no medical value, I was surrounded by the most brilliant minds in the world talking about nothing but the medical value of cannabinoids.”

She said the frustration “was something you could feel in the air.”

Reiman researches medical-cannabis dispensaries as community-health providers and considers the use of cannabis a substitute for alcohol and other drugs. It’s a topic of key interest to both the International Cannabinoid Research Society and the National Institute on Drug Abuse because—unlike almost every other drug—the NIDA can completely restrict researchers’ access to cannabis, citing the plant’s danger to society.

That means safe, effective treatments that stem from pot are being held up. Take the case of Sativex, the marijuana-based mouth spray made by GW Pharmaceuticals in Europe that helps patients with multiple sclerosis and is very safe. Sufferers won’t see it in the United States any time soon, because it contains cannabinoids.

According to the abstracts of the ICRS symposium, researchers have found that the molecules in pot can reverse cancer growth. “Mechanisms of the Anti-cancer Effects of Cannabidiol and Other Non-psychotropic Cannabinoids on Human Prostate Carcinoma” reads one abstract title. There are at least a seven such papers this year.

The molecule in pot called cannabidiol, or CBD, has been shown to reduce anxiety and halt the progression of HIV in monkeys, as well as treat Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, according to ICRS research. Cannabinoid researchers are investigating using pot molecules to treat head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

But these researchers aren’t allowed to progress past animal studies and cannot get their hands on the plant, Reiman said. And it’s driving them crazy.

Since the conference was sponsored by the drug warriors at NIDA, “There was a lot of push-back from researchers in terms of restricting access to these cannabinoids, especially CBD, which is not psychoactive,” said Reiman. “There’s opportunities to cure diseases like cancer, but also neurodegenerative diseases and HIV.”

However, “A lot of NIDA’s mission is to discover the harms associated with drugs of abuse [though not alcohol] and to prevent people from using drugs and to help people who are using them to stop them.

“Nowhere in that mission is it to discover potentially therapeutic benefits for illicit drugs, and that’s why cannabis research falls into the crack,” she said.

It’s unfortunate, because pot may birth the all-star “smart drugs” of the 21st century. The molecules in marijuana stimulate a sort of intracellular Internet called the “endocannabinoid system.” Discovered in the ’90s, the endocannabinoid system runs throughout the bodies of mammals, with a large amount of receptors in the nervous system in the head and gut.

Scientists think pot molecules such as CBD can help facilitate cellular communication, assisting cells in sending signals like “Turn off the inflammation” and “My neighbor is a tumor, kill him!”

“Cannabis seeks out disregulation, like the growth of a tumor, and addresses that problem without interrupting the rest of the body,” Reiman said.

While the federal government still schedules cannabis as a Schedule I narcotic, some 1 million U.S. medical-marijuana patients have embraced the so-called vigilante medicine, as it were. And they’re not turning back, no matter what the federal government does.

“They can’t put the whole plant medical-cannabis genie back in the bottle,” Reiman said. “They just have to recognize that it’s there.”

The Emerald Triangle Is California’s Marijuana Wonderland

Humboldt County signA Look Inside The Emerald Triangle

By Kim Pacilio

With medical marijuana legal in 16 states and counting, there is little doubt that legalized medical marijuana will soon become the norm all across the United States.  And there is no better example in the entire United States of how successful and profitable medical marijuana can be then in a tiny area in Northwestern California known as the Emerald Triangle.  Tucked away in beautiful Northern California, between the Pacific Coast and the Redwood forest, the Emerald Triangle has risen to prominence in recent years and has become infamous for having some of the highest quality medical marijuana in the world.

The Emerald Triangle consists of three notorious California counties Humboldt, Mendicino and Trinity.  With a population of just 225,000 spread sparsely across this beautiful woody hills Northern California landscape, it is almost impossible to imagine that this small area of the country is one of the best areas to grow marijuana in the Northern Hemisphere.  While there aren’t many plants that will flourish in this hilly, tucked away Northern California landscape, the cool winds and the fertile soil make it an ideal place for growing cannabis.

Since the middle of the 1960’s the infamous Emerald Triangle has become a ground zero of sorts for people looking to make a comfortable living in the cannabis growing industry.  Even though growing marijuana is still illegal at the Federal level, California’s friendly medical marijuana laws enable citizens all over the Emerald Triangle to make a small fortune growing and selling marijuana.  The Marijuana trade has even become so lucrative that in most areas in the Emerald Triangle one half to 2/3 of their entire economy is based off marijuana.  With this kind of volume comes enormous profits, not to mention enormous scrutiny.

Dank Marijuana NuggetWith over 1 billion dollars funneling into the Emerald Triangle every year, it is little wonder why the government has begun to take a second and third look at the impact of medical marijuana and the legalization of pot altogether.  With the United States government in complete fiscal crisis, the $40 billion dollar a year marijuana industry could bring substantial revenue back to the government.  Legalizing marijuana would not only bring substantial tax revenue back to the state, but the government would also save an additional $13 billion a year by simply not enforcing marijuana prohibition.

Taking out marijuana from the Emerald Triangle economy would be a devastating blow not only to the local residents who rely on the growing and selling of weed to support themselves, but also to the local and state governments who rely heavily on their tax revenue.  And with new medical marijuana dispensary’s popping up all across California every day, the medical cannabis industry has become a large and integral part in California’s diverse economy.

While many Emerald Triangle citizens walk a fine line between growing marijuana legally and triggering a legal crackdown from the federal government and DEA, many Emerald Triangle growers are undeterred.  In an area still reeling from the decades long decline of the timber and manufacturing industries, marijuana has become a mainstay in the Northern California economy and a lifesaver for many Emerald Triangle residents.

Get Free Medical Marijuana In Michigan If You Register To Vote

Clinic’s offer: Free pot if you register to vote

LANSING, Mich. — An offer by a Michigan business to give free medical marijuana to patients who register to vote has drawn scrutiny from the state attorney general.

Your Healthy Choice Clinic in Lansing was publicizing the offer on its website for a half gram of marijuana or an edible marijuana product in an effort to educate about an upcoming city council election and Lansing’s medical marijuana ordinance, TV stations WILX and WNEM reported.

“It wasn’t ever to lure patients or try to buy their votes,” clinic owner Shekina Pena said.

The clinic, which offered to mail in registrations, wants to support those on city council who support medical marijuana businesses, Pena said.

“We let them know how we feel, we don’t tell them who to vote for,” Pena said. “We definitely want to support the ones who are supporting us.”

On Thursday morning, the offer wasn’t visible on the website. An email seeking comment was sent to the clinic Thursday by The Associated Press.

In a statement Wednesday, Attorney General Bill Schuette said his office was carefully reviewing the matter.

“It was not the intent of the citizens to allow for shenanigans like this,” Schuette said. “Citizens were told this was a way to help seriously ill people, yet here again is an example of the law being exploited by those with their own agenda.”

Michigan voters agreed in 2008 to legalize marijuana for the treatment of some health problems.

Earlier this month, the Lansing City Council approved a cap on medical marijuana dispensaries within city limits. Application fees of $1,000 also were adopted.

Other communities have passed local rules.

Teen Turns In Father On Marijuana Growing Operation

When you can even trust your own kids, who can you trust?
MURFREESBORO, Tenn. – A Murfreesboro father is in trouble after his own son turned him in for growing marijuana.
Police went to the family home after the 15-year-old called to report allegations of physical abuse. When officers arrived the teen handed them a marijuana plant growing in a small flower pot.  Inside the home, police found several plants in two illegal grow operations and arrested the father.
“The juvenile went inside and came out with a marijuana plant that was part of a grow operation inside the house,” said Kyle Evans with Murfreesboro Police.
In an exclusive interview the teen’s father told NewsChannel 5: “I could not believe my son would turn against his father like that.”
In addition to the marijuana plants and grow lights, Murfreesboro police also confiscated scales and supply of processed marijuana from the home. There’s no indication the suspect was growing the marijuana to sell.
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